5 Eyes, 9 Eyes, and 14 Eyes Explained

5 9 14 Eyes Explained
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5 Eyes, 9 Eyes, 14 Eyes: a summary

‘5 Eyes’, ‘9 Eyes’, and ’14 Eyes’ all refer to collaborative efforts between (mostly western) countries that exchange sensitive data. These countries gather information about their citizens and share it with each other when needed. In other words,  they effectively spy on their citizens. Data collection at such levels could be useful, for example when trying to locate a terrorist or international criminal. However, it mostly interferes with our personal space and privacy.

If you want to remain somewhat anonymous while browsing online, you should probably start using a VPN. In the light of 5 Eyes, 9 Eyes, and 14 Eyes, it’s important to choose a VPN provider that isn’t located in one of the countries taking part in these alliances. After all, if they’re situated elsewhere, they won’t be subject to those invasive privacy laws. Therefore, they’ll be more capable of protecting your privacy. A good option to consider is ExpressVPN:

Want to know more about 5 Eyes, 9 Eyes, and 14 Eyes? Continue reading below!

Eye on Laptop

If you’re interested in privacy, you might have heard of the terms “5 Eyes”, “9 Eyes”, and “14 Eyes”. These terms are used to describe a coalition of countries that work together to obtain and share all sorts of data. Essentially, these countries have now become a near worldwide organization with access to gigantic bulks of information.

If you live in one of the coalition countries, it might be good to know that your government could be sharing information about you with the other members of those alliances. This has severe consequences for your online privacy. What these 5, 9, and 14 Eyes countries do exactly, how they came to be, and what consequences their actions have for your privacy will all be discussed in this article.

The Origin of 5 Eyes

The original 5 Eyes alliance was formed in the 1940s. It started as a union between the United States and the United Kingdom: the so-called UKUSA agreement. This enabled the United States and the United Kingdom to exchange information more easily. Canada, Australia, and New-Zealand later joined the UKUSA agreement, because they were cooperating Commonwealth countries with a common legal system. This is how the 5 Eyes, also known as the FVEY, was born.

Developing the ECHELON Surveillance System

During the Cold War, the FVEY developed a system that allowed them to intercept Soviet communication. This system, called the ECHELON surveillance system, is now used to monitor the communication of billions of citizens worldwide.

The general public became aware of the ECHELON system in the 90s, which caused a small outrage in Europe as well as in the United States. The 9/11 attacks and the subsequent War on Terror were used to argue for the continuation and even increase of the monitoring practices. From that moment on, the focus of surveillance shifted to the internet. This makes sense, because the internet was on the rise and at this point most of our communication happens on it.

5 Eyes and the Increase of Spying Worldwide

Keylogger HackerWith the expansion of the ECHELON system and the data exchange between the 5 Eyes countries, it became clear that mass surveillance would become a given worldwide. Even today, communication between country officials or even citizens is intercepted and shared with the other 5 Eyes countries on a large scale. Due to the agreement, the amount of surveillance has only grown over the years.

Legislation in the United States used to state that the NSA is not allowed to spy on its own citizens. Because these rules are different in other countries, it can be easier for the United States to have a foreign organization, for instance one from the United Kingdom, spy on their citizens. Because of the 5 Eyes alliance, the United Kingdom can easily share this information with the NSA. This creates the opportunity for countries to bypass their own privacy laws and use mass surveillance on their citizens.

Meanwhile, several new laws on espionage have been introduced in various countries. Currently, the American NSA is allowed to access phone records, track people wherever they are and hack devices if needed. Moreover, the UK has agreed to introduce a new law about espionage and Russia and China have agreed to cooperate when it comes to (cyber) espionage so they’re able to better shield themselves against cyber attacks.

Expanding the 5 Eyes Alliance: 9 Eyes and 14 Eyes

Over time, the 5 Eyes alliance has expanded to include other countries as well. These different alliances have grown into a large network of countries that share sensitive information with each other. This includes communication between citizens and organizations.

The 9 Eyes countries include the original 5 Eyes countries as well as the Netherlands, France, Denmark, and Norway. While 9 Eyes is mostly an expansion of 5 Eyes, cooperation between these nine countries is less intense than is the case with 5 Eyes. Finally, there’s also the 14 Eyes alliance, which includes the addition of Belgium, Italy, Germany, Spain, and Sweden. Here, too, the goal is to obtain information and share that with one another when necessary. However, 14 Eyes is not as strict and intense in its cooperation as 9 Eyes and 5 Eyes are. Regardless, these 14 countries share sensitive information with each other without having to go through too much trouble. This information even reaches to private communication between citizens.

Protect Yourself Against Mass Surveillance

Since more and more of our lives takes place on the internet and online privacy is becoming an important consideration, it’s good to be aware of concepts like the 5, 9, and 14 Eyes alliances. Such projects can potentially invade your privacy. A government agency in your country might intercept your private communication. Subsequently, they could share this communication, and other personal data, with government agencies in other countries. Your government can do so without your direct permission.

To protect themselves against these forces, some internet users now choose to use a VPN. A VPN is very effective when you want to protect your online privacy and hide your data traffic from prying eyes. When you connect with the VPN server, your personal IP address will be hidden and you won’t be surfing the web with your IP address publicly available. Your IP address will change to the VPN Server’s IP. Without a VPN, others can link your online actions to your identity and your location based on your IP address. When you use a VPN, your online actions can only be traced back to the VPN server.

However, there’s one thing that should be noted: if you specifically want to use a VPN to make sure you escape the reach of the 5, 9, 14 Eyes countries, you should choose a VPN that isn’t based in one of these countries. This way you can be sure the VPN providers won’t disclose or monitor what you do via their servers. Many providers might be forced to hand over information simply because their HQ is located in, for example, the United States (as is the case with StrongVPN). Some examples of premium VPN providers that aren’t subject to the mass surveillance of the 14 Eyes countries are:


ExpressVPN is a huge player in the VPN market. This provider is situated in the British Virgin Islands. Therefore, you won’t have to worry about 5 Eyes and the other alliances as much if you consistently use this VPN.

Great discount on annual subscription + 30-day money-back guarantee!
  • Very easy to use VPN
  • Perfect for anonymous browsing, downloading, and streaming (i.e. Netflix)
  • 3000+ servers in 94 countries
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At the time of writing, NordVPN is one of the biggest VPN out there. Their company’s headquarters is situated in Panama. This country isn’t a part of the 5, 9, or 14 eyes alliances.

Our pick
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  • Nice and pleasing application
  • No logs
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CyberGhost is another popular VPN. This provider has teams working in both Romania and Germany. However, their main office is in Romania, which places them outside of the 5, 9, and 14 Eyes jurisdiction.

Try CyberGhost for $2.15 per month!
  • Very user-friendly
  • High quality for a low price
  • Torrents and Netflix possible
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Overview of 5 Eyes, 9 Eyes, and 14 Eyes Countries

Below you can find a quick overview of the countries that make up the 5 Eyes, 9 Eyes, and 14 Eyes alliances.

5 Eyes countries9 Eyes countries14 Eyes countries
United StatesUnited StatesUnited States
United KingdomUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom
The NetherlandsThe Netherlands

Final Thoughts

The 5 Eyes, 9 Eyes, and 14 Eyes countries form a gigantic western alliance that exchanges sensitive information and uses mass surveillance. It has become a near-global spying network. The agreements of the alliances enable these countries to bypass their national privacy laws and still get their hands on more information than they should have. As a result, if you live in one of the 14 Eyes countries, your government could be sharing any information with government agencies in the other 13. Therefore, using a VPN to improve your online privacy might not be such a bad idea. A good VPN ensures that no agency can intercept your internet traffic. You might think you have nothing to hide, but with so many eyes watching, who knows what they might see – and what they might use your information for.

5 Eyes, 9 Eyes and 14 Eyes: Frequently Asked Questions

If you have a question about the 5 eyes, 9 eyes and 14 eyes, we might be able to help you out. Simply click one of the queries below to see the answer.

‘5 Eyes’, ‘9 Eyes’, and ’14 Eyes’ all refer to collaborative efforts between countries that exchange sensitive and mass surveillance data. These countries gather information about their citizens and share it with each other when needed. It has become a spying network.

A VPN can be very effective when you want to protect yourself againt Mass Surveillance. When you connect with the VPN server, your IP address will change to the VPN Server’s IP. Your online actions can now only be traced back to the VPN server and not to you.

Make sure you choose a VPN that isn’t based in on of the 5, 9 and 14 Eyes countries.

It is important that you choose a VPN provider that isn’t located in one of the countries of the 5,9 and 14-Eyes partnerships. VPN providers from these countries may be forced by the government to provide information about their customers’ online activities.

We recommend ExpressVPN. This provider is situated on the British Virgin Islands. Therefore, you won’t have to worry that ExpressVPN monitors what you do via their servers.

Tech journalist
Tove has been working for VPNoverview since 2017 as a journalist covering cybersecurity and privacy developments. She has broad experience developing rigorous VPN testing procedures and protocols for our VPN review section and has tested dozens of VPNs over the years.
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  1. Excellently described.
    Can we know which year the 9 eyes agreement was made? I believe in the 1990s but was it under George HW Bush or Bill Clinton?

    • As far as we can tell, no public information is available that reveals an exact year when the agreement was formed. It’s not backed by any treaty, and is really an extension of 9 Eyes, but at slightly less intense levels. The only reason we know as much about it as we do, is because of the data leaked in 2013 by Edward Snowden.

  2. Excellent overview of information, even for novice such as me. Thanks for well organized article with excellent graphics. Am a new VPN user and was unfamiliar with the “eye” reference and you answered it perfectly. Many thanks. Great job. Would be interested in your take on the recent leak of info allegedly about PIA, particularly whether the year or multi year products are less robust than the monthly subscription app.

    • Thank you for the compliment! Concerning your comments about PIA: could you specify what leak you’re referring to? We haven’t had any issues with PIA and are unaware of any current leaks or problems concerning the VPN service.

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